What is Erythropoietin
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a peptide hormone that runs on its natural course inside every human body. It controls the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, responsible for transporting additional oxygen to cells that produce energy during a physical activity. Erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) includes receptor for growth hormone, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin and others.
How does Erythropoietin work?
Red blood cells carry oxygen as an order of EPO and helps in reducing muscle fatigue felt over a long period of time due to consumption of energy. It is useful for athletes and people suffering from acute and chronic diseases. The human kidney produces EPO during the adulthood and the human liver produces it during the perinatal period. EPO contributes in the development of human red blood cells from stem cells, whose main function is to act as a repair system for the body, maintaining the normal turnover of regenerative organs (blood, skin or intestinal tissues).
Results and benefits
EPO is commonly used for the treatment of severe anemia caused by acute and chronic diseases. People with this kind of disease may have chronic fatigue; that decreases their life quality, their relationships and their daily activities. This condition can be controlled by providing them this peptide. In this sense, EPO treats problems like chronic kidney disease, anemia induced by cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and myelodysplasia derived from the treatment of cancer. EPO can function as a complementary hormonal treatment of any potential drug treatment.
EPO has been used like a “Performance-Enhancing Drug” (PED) to improve the performance of physical activity in humans. Athletes often use these substances to get an advantage over their competitors. EPO is a blood booster, and it is good for long-distance running, cycling and skiing. It is the most widely known drug in this class. But this drug is banned for official sports competitions.
Even though the heart is one of the most adaptable and strongest muscles in human body, EPO thickens the blood, giving rise to harder heartbeats, exposing the individual to a risk of stroke or heart attack. This blood viscosity can lead the left ventricle to failure. Some sports scandals include, death of athletes during a competition who used EPO or any other related substance.
EPO stimulates the angiogenesis, resulting in the forming of new vessels from pre-existing vessels. Angiogenesis is the responsible for the growth and development of vessels, as well as wound healing and the formation of granulation tissue, which is formed at the site of an injury to begin a healing process.
EPO has many benefits for people who experience problems related to fatigue or lack of energy, but athletes also use it to potentiate their performance, which can be considered illegal in some countries. Any use of this peptide has its own consequences and is the responsibility of who uses it decide if it is worth.
A standard dose in adults is set in a range of 50 to 100 units/kg and in minors is in a range of 50 units/kg. In case of reduction of hemoglobin, dose should increase by 25% and vice versa.